Since the discovery of stem cells, researchers have discovered that bone marrow mononuclear cells can come from a variety of sources, including circulating fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. It is possible that PBMCs could develop into various lineages in various microenvironments given the presence of these various stem cell populations. Further research has shown that PBMCs can differentiate into myofibroblasts, endothelial cells, hepatocytes, muscle cells, bone, epithelial cells, and blood cells.
Aside from that, researchers have even succeeded in creating induced pluripotent cells from PBMCs (iPSCs). Although PBMCs’ potential has been demonstrated, it is still unknown what causes their diverse and pervasive potential.
Cell Transplantation & Therapy
Contrary to bone marrow stem cells, PBMCs can be separated in a non-invasive way, hence the extraction procedure doesn’t require general anaesthesia. Additionally, long-term immunosuppressive therapies or ethical issues are not necessary for the autologous transplantation of PBMCs.
Hematological cancers are presently treated using PBMC transplantation. To fully comprehend their ability to differentiate and undergo transplantation, more study will still be needed.
CAR-T cell Treatment
The efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy as seen in patient clinical studies has led to its designation as a ground-breaking strategy. This approach involves genetically modifying a patient’s own T cells to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). These cells may then recognise antigens without the aid of MHCs and destroy tumour cells when they come into contact with them.
In the host environment, CAR-T cells can also self-amplify. The PBMCs used in this method are where the T cells come from. However, T cells are originally separated from a PBMC population that has not been fractionated, resulting in cell populations that are a combination of T cells and other PBMC cells.
This may reduce the ability of isolated T cells to proliferate. Later, although the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells is still variable, different procedures are used to enrich the T cell population from PBMCs using a T cell-specific marker. To create a more stable population of cells, it is also possible to regulate the quantity of CD4 and CD8 cells. It is currently unknown, nevertheless, how variations in the CD4:CD8 ratio affect the clonal effectiveness of CAR T cells.
Identification of Autoimmune Disorders
Skin, brain, and synovium biopsies must be obtained and examined in order to provide an accurate diagnosis of an autoimmune disease. The early stages of illness progression, which may be most receptive to treatment interventions, cannot be studied using this method.
The ability to simply and non-invasively collect PBMCs and their potential to find pathogenic components in the blood provide them significant advantages over a biopsy. The tiny amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that may be collected from PBMCs is a drawback because it may take a lot of cells to provide data that is useful.
A means of Locating Biomarkers?
Recent research has demonstrated that PBMCs are a potential source of biomarkers. A number of disorders, including chronic diseases like arthritis and lateral sclerosis, as well as dietary-related metabolic alterations, might be indicated by an increase or reduction in the mRNA profile of genes in PBMC.
Despite their promise for use in research, PBMCs also come with a number of drawbacks, particularly in light of the fact that patients’ PBMCs differ in the quantity of different cell types they contain.