In the early years of the current century, the applications associated with acute toxicity were largely being foreshadowed. However, very recently researchers have directed their attention to exploring many crucial biological pathways to evaluate underlying molecular the mechanism responsible for the diseased condition. In this regard, the primary cells have been emphasized to be playing a crucial role in order to facilitate high throughput testing of different drugs; and have been noted as a cheaper alternative for pre-screening drug analysis directly on humans or animals.
Accordingly, a current decade has experienced an exponential increase in the rapid screening of a large number of novel drugs, to set testing parameters for safety as well as feasibility, on the basis of predictive adverse effects. Thus, the current write up is intended to promote primary cells isolated from different preliminary tissues like liver, pancreas, gingival, etc.; under strict sterile conditions.
Numerous pre-screening assays can be developed using primary cells isolated from a GMP grade laboratory, at a reasonable cost. These assays can be helpful in the assessment of safety as well feasibility of the drug, on the specific cells; in order to further elucidate their mechanism of action. The primary cells isolated by Kosheeka have been endorsed to be of high quality, reliable and further exhibiting good agreement between different laboratories in terms of accuracy as well as viability.
Accordingly, some of the well-known assays that have received great appreciation in the context of final output can be noted as:
Specific Protein Assays:
These assays can be noted as one of the most obvious ways to find whether the drug that has been formulated can act on a particular targeted protein, which can either be an enzyme or cellular receptors or maybe other biomolecules; and further, reveal the underlying mechanism of action. Given their higher efficiency in predicting specifically targeted molecular assays; these assays are being most commonly exploited for pre-screening analysis of different novel drugs. Some of these assays have direct relevance to predicting acute toxicity levels of different new drug formulations, and hence should further be used as warfare agents.
Cell-Based Assays For Phenotypic Analysis
The primary cells obtained directly from the tissue of interest further can be used as in high-throughput assays like cell-based phenotypic analysis in order to measure the phenotypic output of cells i.e. further being helpful to predict acute toxicity like cellular proliferation, plasma membrane permeability, ATP content analysis, etc. As a matter of fact, great literature is available on the application of primary cells in different cell-based assays that can further lead to drug development and toxicological analysis. However, it should be noted that these simple cytotoxicity assays are largely been used for a quite a long time with partial success. In this regard, an important consideration should be offered to the type of cell preference, it culture efficiency as well as viability. Cell types that is more physiologically relevant like an animal or human primary cells are found to be more in demand than others.
Thus, unless great care is taken in obtaining primary cells that are of good quality in terms of viability as well as cell number and are in their growing stage; it is very difficult to use them over other cell lines due to their physiological irrelevance. Thus, these considerations have led to obtaining different primary cells from relevant primary cells.