Stem cells can be employed to cure disease and in regenerative medicine. The use of stem cells, local modifications in the microenvironment, and tissue engineering-related transplantation is anticipated to address significant medical issues. The majority of current research focuses on tissue repair and regeneration, with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) being one of the most popular study subjects. MSCs are useful as seed cells, and they are one of the trendiest topics in regenerative medicine research currently. Their clinical application, however, is difficult because of storage restrictions and since cell senescence develops during in vitro proliferation. The paracrine signalling that causes MSCs to release exosomes also gives them the advantages of focused delivery, low immunogenicity, and high repairability. Exosomes and MSCs both have similar functions.
Nearly all cell types have the ability to secrete exosomes, which are extracellular vesicles with nanoscale bilayer membranes. Exosomes are very stable because of the phospholipid bilayer that covers their surface. Exosomes can control the signalling and function of their target cells once they have entered them.
Biological Functions of Exosomes
The ability of MSCs to engage with recipient cells and distribute their protein, lipid, and RNA content to these cells is essential to their ability to carry out their intended function. MSCs are frequently employed for both acute and chronic injuries as well as tissue healing. Exosomes can deliver chemicals into target cells because they have unique cell binding sites.
Exosomes have been linked to cancer progression, immune responses, viral pathogenicity, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. Exosome-delivered proteins, metabolites, and nucleic acids drastically influence the biological response of recipient cells. Such exosome-mediated reactions may either promote or inhibit the development of illness. The potential therapeutic use of exosomes in the management of various diseases has been boosted by their inherent abilities to regulate intricate intracellular pathways.
Exosome pharmacokinetic qualities can be influenced by their lipid and protein content, and their natural components might contribute to increased bioavailability and reduce adverse reactions. Exosomes have the ability to aid in illness diagnostics in addition to being therapeutic agents.
Future clinical research will primarily focus on examining the mechanism of action of exosomes in the therapy of diseases. Exosomes have particular advantages as a novel therapeutic idea. In addition to having the same functions as MSCs as a signalling molecules, MSC exosomes also have a more persistent membrane shape. MSC-derived exosomes are well accepted and have lower immunogenicity than whole-cell treatment. These benefits open up more options for treating diseases.
Exosome quality control, purification, and transplantation conditions, as well as their cost and safety, are all current issues. The best way to preserve exosomes for a long time is also a concern, as is determining their concentration quickly and accurately. For clarification, a deeper investigation is needed in order to resolve these problems. Although there are still many issues with exosomes, the opportunities for basic research and clinical applications merit consideration and investigation.