The stem cells and acute respiratory syndrome: Explored

The acute respiratory syndromes, majorly affecting the lungs and their efficacy have haunted the world in the last decades with MERS-CoV, SARS-COV, and SARS-CoV-2. Researchers across different corners of the world are trying to understand the relationship between immune dysregulation and disease pathophysiology. While currently, the spread of infection is at major set backstage due to the development of vaccines, scientists are still trying to understand the disease at the cellular and the molecular levels, wherein the cell culture models play a vital role.

We have discovered that primary cells and stem cells can be worked out as excellent cell culture models, possessing the characteristic features of the donors. While our range of cell lines has made a significant contribution during the vaccine development, we are also thrilled to present a range of primary cells, media, and other supportive products for understanding acute respiratory distress syndrome.

So far, 7 different types of coronaviruses have been documented causing acute respiratory distress syndrome; with a different set of genetic heterogeneity and immunological aspects. This genetic complexity coupled with the dwindling supply of antiviral treatment necessitates the need for the development of effective screening and enrichment methods of viruses using suitable in vitro model systems. However, the development of novel vaccines and effective antiviral treatments is currently challenged by multiple issues like batch-to-batch variation, contamination, unavailability of effective primary cells for screening purposes, etc.

At Kosheeka, we believe that it takes the combined efforts of dedicated scientists across the world to discover therapeutic modalities that are needed to maintain the health and safety of humankind. This provokes us to be committed to offering multiple ranges of virus-producing cell lines, primary cells, and stem cells for therapeutic screening.

Accordingly, Kosheeka’s portfolio for acute respiratory distress syndrome includes:

  • Range of primary cells for respiratory research, including vascular and microvascular endothelial cells, airway epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, etc.
  • Wide range of primary stem cells to support the therapeutic development of COVID-19, which include mesenchymal stem cells isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly. Exosomes isolated from mesenchymal stem cells etc.
  • Essential cell culture growth medium for optimized growth and culture.

During the pandemic and in the post-pandemic era, multiple labs and pharmaceutical companies around the globe are relying on our primary cells and stem cells for both vaccine development and development of the therapeutic module.

Stem cell therapy is a significant treatment, applied mainly to COVID-19 during the state of critical vitals; including but not limited to cardiovascular disorders, lung diseases, liver issues, kidney problems, etc. The primary objectives of stem cell therapy are associated with the use of naïve cells from a potent source, culturing them for large-scale production, and restricting them to controlled differentiation in vitro in desired cell types. With the rise in patients complaining of post-COVID complications such as cardiovascular issues, pulmonary disorders, etc. stem cell therapy can be considered as an ideal treatment to repair lung damage.

While configuring the underlying mechanism, studies have confirmed that immune dysregulation is the primary reason for COVID-19 acute infection; which further triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies in the patient’s body. This cytokine storm causes symptomatic aggravation, acute cardiac injury, and multiple other secondary infections like generalized sepsis and multisystem failure. The immunoregulatory abilities of mesenchymal stem cells are being extensively studied at multiple levels, confirming their potential in cell-based therapy by regulating both innate as well as adaptive immune functions.

Kosheeka is offering a range of products for therapeutic applications, such as:

  • Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Umbilical Cord Derived Wharton’s jelly
  • Mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow
  • Exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells
  • NK cells for regulation of immune dysfunctions, in the post-COVID era.

Stem cells in modeling multiorgan infection by SARS-CoV-2

In addition, to be effectively used in therapeutic applications, primary stem cells also play a very important role in modeling COVID-19 disease and other acute respiratory distress syndrome. During the past couple of years, the generation of organoids from stem cells has been one of the most exemplary advances in the field of stem cells. These 3D organoids are in vitro tissue models prepared from a wide range of primary mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different potent tissues. They can stimulate the physiological structure of an organ in a true sense and are widely acknowledged to be an organ-in-a-dish.

Accordingly, various stem cell models have been studied extensively to understand the effect of viral invasion on the organ. Some of them are:

  • Liver bile duct progenitor cells were modeled in the 3D form to study liver damage in COVID-19 patients (Zhao et.al; 2020)
  • Liver bile duct progenitor cells were modeled in the 3D form to study liver damage in COVID-19 patients (Zhao et.al; 2020)
  • Primary gut endothelial stem cells modeled on a pseudostratified layer to study how intestinal epithelium supports SARS-CoV replication (Lamers et.al; 2020)
  • Adult human hepatocytes modeled on the 3D system to assess whether these organoids are susceptible to SARS-CoV infection (Yang et.al; 2020)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells derived cardiomyocytes were cultured and studied for androgen signaling pathways (Samuel et.al; 2020)

Conclusively, although vaccination is the best choice to fight against the spread of COVID infection, data from current clinical studies are unable to determine the extent of protection offered. Hence, a need for the alternative therapeutic option is forcing researchers to use various primary cells and stem cells to explore disease pathology.

  • Katsura H, Sontake V, Tata A, Kobayashi Y, Edwards CE, Heaton BE, et al. Human lung stem cell-based alveolospheres provide insights into SARS-CoV-2-mediated interferon responses and pneumocyte dysfunction. Cell Stem Cell. 2020;27(6):890–904.
  • Lamers MM, Beumer J, van der Vaart J, Knoops K, Puschhof J, Breugem TI, et al. SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. Science. 2020;369(6499):50–4.
  • Samuel RM, Majd H, Richter MN, Ghazizadeh Z, Zekavat SM, Navickas A, et al. Androgen signaling regulates SARS-CoV-2 receptor levels and is associated with severe COVID-19 symptoms in men. Cell Stem Cell. 2020;27(6):876–89.
  • Zhao B, Ni C, Gao R, Wang Y, Yang L, Wei J, et al. Recapitulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and cholangiocyte damage with human liver ductal organoids. Protein Cell. 2020;11(10):771–5.
  • Yang L, Han Y, Nilsson-Payant BE, Gupta V, Wang P, Duan X, et al. A Human pluripotent stem cell-based platform to study SARS-CoV-2 tropism and model virus infection in human cells and organoids. Cell Stem Cell. 2020;27(1):125–36.