Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have elicited great interest in the domains of tissue engineering, wound healing, regenerative medicine, and transplantation. Previous research studies have demonstrated that the transplantation of MSCs to an ectopic site in animal models has given rise to osteoblasts and bone tissue. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are adult clonal multipotential stem cells that represent 1/10,000 to 1/100,000 of all mononuclear cells in the bone marrow. The ability to expand Mesenchymal stem cells in vitro for clinical applications has recently facilitated the development of clinical trials designed to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSCs transplantation for a variety of diseases as toxicity or malignancy was not associated with the infusion of expanded autologous MSCs into patients.
What are the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells are unspecialized or undifferentiated cells that lack tissue-specific characteristics and can self-proliferate. MSCs do not express hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, CD14, CD11 or the co-stimulatory molecules CD 80, CD 86, CD40, CD 40 ligand and CD 154. The human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are positive for CD73, CD105, and CD90. MSCs express adhesion molecules, including VCAM (CD 106), ICAM (CD54), and LFA-3. Mesenchymal stem cells also express IL-6, IL-7, IL-11, IL-12, IL-14, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), stem cell factor (SCF), and flt-3 ligand. For more details, click here.
Mesenchymal Stem cells in Cell Therapy
Numerous studies have demonstrated migration and multiorgan engraftment of MSCs for cell therapy both in animal models and in human trials. Direct injection of human marrow stromal cells into rat brain showed engraftment of 20% infused cells [Ref]. In primates, mesenchymal stem cells injected intravenously also showed engraftment in different injured tissues, such as bone marrow, skin, digestive tract, and muscle [Ref1, Ref2]. Engraftment of human mesenchymal stem cells in sheep [Ref12, Ref2] or mouse [Ref1–Ref2] have reported site-specific differentiation and the ability to engraft was not influenced either by route of administration or by conditioning protocol difference [Ref].
In the domain of hematopoiesis, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been seen to support medullary hematopoiesis structurally and functionally by providing growth factors and extracellular matrix [Ref1, Ref2, Ref3]. In humans, rapid hematopoietic recovery has been demonstrated with co-infusion of autologous-blood stem cells and culture-expanded MSCs [Ref].
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are easily expanded and in vitro & in vivo studies have indicated the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into muscle, neural progenitors, cardiomyocytes, bone, tendon, cartilage, and other cell types for cell therapy. For more information on the therapeutic potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in cell therapy, read more.
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