Latest Updates on Animal Cell Culture Research

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    Human Endothelial Cells

    For many years, mature human endothelial cells derived from human vasculature were the main tool used to research the biology of human endothelial cells. The early 1970s saw the successful isolation of ECs from human umbilical veins, which was of utmost significance and gave researchers around the world unheard-of access to human EC cultures. Consequently, […]

    Cell lines are in vitro model systems that are widely used in different fields of medical research, especially basic cancer research and drug discovery. Their usefulness is primarily linked to their ability to provide an indefinite source of biological material for experimental purposes. Under the right conditions and with appropriate controls, authenticated cancer cell lines […]

    The pinnacle of biomedical research is the ongoing development of cancer medicines. The strong therapeutic potential exists when the immune system is targeted and biological processes are used to enhance the body’s response to cancer. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a particular kind of cell that may develop into several types of tissue and play […]

    Stem cells can be employed to cure disease and in regenerative medicine. The use of stem cells, local modifications in the microenvironment, and tissue engineering-related transplantation is anticipated to address significant medical issues. The majority of current research focuses on tissue repair and regeneration, with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) being one of the most popular […]

    Respiratory research encompasses a wide range of conditions, including acute and long-term dysfunction as well as infectious disease. Respiratory disease is triggered by a mixture of factors, ranging from smoking and air quality to genetic factors and the microbial community of the lung. Definite diseases, such as tuberculosis, are now on the upsurge as bacteria […]

    Cell Culture techniques enhance biomedical research, notably in drug discovery, cancer biology, and regenerative medicine, and are showing significant promise. In most cases, these procedures entail growing two types of cells in vitro: cell lines and primary cells. Cell lines are groups of cells that have been repeatedly passed over time to avoid senescence and […]

    Oral tissues and organs are connected functionally in the oral cavity, which is a complex structure. Damage to one of them that is irreversible is more likely to impact the others, leading to widespread malfunction. Oral health is negatively impacted by periodontal disorders, alveolar bone resorption and tooth decay. Dental pulp stem cells have therapeutic […]

    There are numerous distinctions between cancerous and non-cancerous cells. A few of the differences are well-known, while others were uncovered more recently and are less well known. You might be curious about the differences between cancer cells if you’re dealing with your own or a loved one’s cancer. Discovering how cancer cells differ from normal […]

    Researchers have been working on bringing about a moment in the years ahead when we will be capable of growing “an eye in a dish” and transplanting it to restore eyesight to someone who is blind, and it is not as far away as you may imagine. It’s essential to consider how eyes develop naturally […]

    Cryopreservation is a well-known laboratory technique for storing cells as well as other biological material at temperatures close to liquid nitrogen (-196°C). It offers the researcher a standby in case developing cells are damaged due to contamination, and it helps to minimize the incidence of genetic drift by permitting early passage cells to be used […]

    Cell culture is a realm within itself. The medium in the culture dish includes nutrients that cells require to live and thrive. But, every once in a while, uninvited invaders breach the cultures, endangering the delicate stability of the system and tainting the scientific conclusions. Consequently, the cultures are futile and must be eradicated. But […]

    The blend of stem cell technologies with an immunotherapy outlook has provided a novel method to rejuvenate the cancer-fighting immune cells

    Of late, immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful technique in the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy is a kind of cancer treatment that uses the capacity of your own immune system for the elimination and prevention of cancer. The growth of abnormal cells invades the body and leads to cancer. This technique has made commendable changes […]


    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases and kills people every now and then. The two most common types of cancer are: Carcinoma and Sarcoma.  both of these cancers are malignant but still they have differences. Despite the numerous advancements in tumour and molecular biology over the past few years; the mortality rates due to […]

    primary cell-based assay

    Over the past few decades, cell-based assays have provided scientists with outstanding insights on various cellular processes taking place in the body. Primary cell-based assays have proved to be one of a kind in the field of assay development. Human primary cell assays are developed by extracting cells from blood, differentiated stem cells or bone […]

    Cell culture is an inseparable part of scientific research and advancements; without primary cells and culture techniques, the scientific progress made so far would have been a dream! Since the time researcher managed to isolate cells from frog nerve fibre in the last century, the science of cell culture has evolved greatly. Today, scientists are […]

    Challenges and Controversies in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Mesenchymal stem cells have become popular in terms of clinical interest because of their potential in stem cell transplantation. A lot of clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells have been achieved but many are still in the pipeline under scrutiny. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy risk should be considered in terms of long-lasting observations instead of […]

    Difference between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells

    Epithelial and Endothelial Cells- How Do They Differ? While discussing epithelial and endothelial cells, it is not easy to distinguish them but researchers have come up with some distinct features. Endothelial cells cover the blood vessel inner surface, while epithelial cells cover outer surface of the internal organs and the body. The endothelial cells and […]

    Better Cell Culture and Number of Quality Control Procedures to be Followed

    Ever since the first successful isolation of frog nerve fibers, the practice of cell culture has evolved tremendously. Today, it has become an integral part of biomedicines and biotherapeutics; however, scientists are still struggling with a number of challenges, right from its lack of reproducibility to contaminated cell lines; which needs special assessments with a […]

    Photo showing complete Vitro Assay Development process.

    The ability to design, construct, and run specific, sensitive, and robust in vitro assays is crucial in all areas of biomedical research. In the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, assays are required to identify and characterize potential new drug molecules. Regardless of the precise application or the particular molecule to be measured, several fundamental characteristics ought […]

    Challenges and Controversies in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    The science of biotechnology typically relies on the reproducibility of the results; in order to confirm it to be a discovery.  If preceding information is not repeatable, it is uncertain that any scientist or researcher will continue to pursue that work. Much of biomedical studies—medicine, genetics, drug discovery, vaccine development, reconstructive medicine, fundamental science, HIV […]

    Treating covid through stemcells

    Post-COVID-19 complications have emerged as a grave issue globally. The individuals who have recovered from the disease are now wrestling with complications and are unable to get treatment due to the absence of adequate information about post-COVID-19 neurological complications. Due to the random genetic drift of the virus, the vaccine production for treating COVID-19, particularly […]

    antibody purification

    Antibodies are a crucial part of the body’s immune system. Upon getting infected with an antigen, the immune system generates an antibody response specific to that antigen. Antibodies are used in many biomedical research applications as well as in immunoassays for disease detection. Thus, the procedure of antibody purification is an essential research procedure in […]

    cell culture tips

    Primary cells are isolated directly from living tissue and grown in vitro.  These cells haven’t multiplied excessively i.e., they have experienced very few passage numbers and thus, possess native characteristics of parent tissue. Primary cells shouldn’t be confused with cell lines as cell lines are cultured from immortalized cultures of primary cells. Biomedical research is […]

    cell culture model

    A serious challenge for researchers in biomedical and clinical research lies in the procurement of relevant in vitro models. For COVID-19 related research, lung epithelial cells are currently tested as a platform and more primary cell types can be used by researchers. These primary cell types are generally reported to be associated with COVID-19 infections […]

    cell culture

    In today’s global setting, Mammalian cell culture is an indispensable boon in the field of life sciences. It acts as a foundation brick for a variety of disciplines such as regulation, propagation, and differentiation as well as to achieve genetic manipulation. Many biotechnology goods including viral vaccines are essentially reliant on mass culturing of animal […]

    3d bioprinting

    Creating an organ from scratch? That was what science-fiction novels talked about before 3D bioprinting became a reality! 3D bioprinting revolutionized the simple idea of 2D primary cell culture and took it to the levels of an engineering miracle. With the advent of this technology, researchers can seamlessly create tissues and organs, making transplants safe […]

    Cell Culture Growth

    Are you revisiting your cell culture lab every day with the hope of seeing good confluent cells? Are you disappointed with your animal cell culture growth? For a cell culture researcher, nothing is more saddening than knowing your cells will not attach or grow in the media. Stunted growth or limited proliferation of cells in […]

    skin stem cells

    Skin tissue protects our body from dehydration, infection, heat etc. and it keeps getting renewed constantly throughout our lives.Skin stem cells are responsible for skin regeneration and wound healing. These skin stem cells have been identified broadly: Epidermal stem cells: Handles everyday skin renewal and are present in the basal layer of epidermis. Hair follicle […]

    Choosing Right Research Model

    A research model is a scientific entity chosen to aid one’s experimentations and research and to collect data. In research, the right models allow for an improved understanding of the human patho-physiocological processes, without the additional risk of harming a real human being. As the government guidelines for animal care upsurge in number and complexity, […]

    Cryopreservation is a mandatory technique for cell culture researchers as it allows the storage of cells and tissues in the cryopreserved stage for future culturing. Cryopreservation can impact research efficacy owing to how the whole process is managed and what materials are used. For example, if cells are frozen too quickly, membrane damage and cell […]

    The process of vaccine production is a continually updating and refreshing technology. The innovative technologies give researchers numerous opportunities to adjust processes and achieve cost-effective scale-up of production. The COVID-19 vaccine rush has shown the world why aligning and optimizing new methods is crucial for companies and organizations. In today’s time, ‘plug and play’ doesn’t […]

    The whole process of obtaining human tissue for studying organ development and diseases is tedious due to ethical concerns and difficulty of availability. 3D cell culture offers a unique alternative for advanced research on human tissue. 3D cell culture, in the form of organoids, is used by biomedical researchers to study the complex arrangements and […]

    Diabetes is a global concern for the healthcare community. It is a chronic metabolic disorder that can either be Type1 (failure to produce enough insulin) or Type2 (inability of the body to use insulin). The exact cause of Type1 Diabetes is still under research and is believed to be an autoimmune disorder with the involvement […]

    Difference between Epithelial and Endothelial Cells

    A crucial step before taking up research work with human or animal tissue is to ensure appropriate ethical and medical legislation and guidelines for experiments. This can also deal with procuring approval from relevant authorities or individuals. Biohazards and Safety considerations It is very important to know the possible associated risks while working with potential […]

    Applications of Animal Cell Culture

    Animal cell culture has been one of the most important tools for biomedical and clinical research. In this article, we discuss 9 applications of animal cell culture: (1) Model Systems (2) Toxicity Testing (3) Cell-Based Manufacturing (4) Drug Screening and Development (5) Cancer Research (6) Virology (7) Genetic Engineering (8) Gene Therapy and (9) Stem […]

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells. Being mutipotent, MSCs can differentiate into more than one specialized cell of the body. Generally, MSCs make the different cells in skeletal tissues e.g., chondrocytes, osteoblast, adipocyte etc. In case of MSCs giving rise to other specialized cells like neurons, reprogramming of the cells with gene […]

    When you are starting your cell culture research, the primary requirement is having cells, and to decide whether human primary cells or cell lines will be beneficial, is a major task! If you want a cell culture model that is closer to human in vivo environment, human primary cells are a better choice. Human primary […]

    liver hepatocyte cell culture

    Liver hepatocytes in cryopreservation contain major drug-metabolizing enzymes. For growing liver hepatocyte cell culture, a quick-thaw protocol is performed in the case of cryopreserved primary cells. However, if the thawing procedure is incorrect, the viability and functionality of the primary cells might be impaired. Inhibit Cryoinjury effects Before going for liver hepatocyte thawing, cryoinjury phenomena […]

    Biomedical research

    Biomedical research advancements depend on data credibility but scientific results are not always reproducible. Independent verification of cell culture findings is a basic principle of research and the procedure and other factors affect the concept of research reproducibility heavily. Many scientists who work with primary cell culture focus on the ‘correctness’ of the results but […]

    Role of Pericytes

    The vasculature tissue consists of different types of cells: smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, connective tissue cells, and pericytes (Johnson et al., 2002). Pericytes were discovered by Charles Marie Benjamin Rouget, a French physiologist, 140 years ago (Herndon et al., 2017). Pericytes are present in every vascularized body tissue and cover 22 to 99 % […]

    Kidney Epithelial Primary Cells

    Kidney Epithelial Primary Cells: The urinary system plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis by filtering blood to remove the waste, fluid regulation, electrolyte level regulation, endocrine secretion, and drug metabolism. Kidney epithelial primary cells, therefore, are an important part of biomedical research with various applications. In vitro systems are great tools for […]

    adult natural progenitor cells

    What are neural progenitor cells? Neural progenitor cells are the progenitor cells of the central nervous system that gives rise to several glial and neuronal cell types that form the central nervous system. Neural progenitor cells do not generate non-neuronal cells such as immune cells. Neural progenitor cells are present in the central nervous system […]

    Mesenchymal stem cells are easily isolated from bone marrow and other body tissues, such as adipose, umbilical cord, and peripheral blood. All mesenchymal stem cells have a multipotent differentiation capacity into a variety of cell types, like osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and myoblasts. Human circulating mesenchymal stem cells, also called human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells, […]

    How Primary Cells Are Important

    ADME is the abbreviation for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion. These ADME studies are designed to investigate the metabolism and processing of a chemical compound by a living organism. When toxicology tests are a part of this process, the acronym becomes ADMET with the last T for ‘Toxicology’. Primary cells are directly isolated from human […]

    Epithelial and Endothelial

    While discussing epithelial and endothelial cells, it is not easy to distinguish them but researchers have come up with some distinct features. Endothelial cells cover the blood vessel inner surface, while epithelial cells cover outer surface of the internal organs and the body. The endothelial cells and epithelial cells are derived from the epithelium, but […]


    Multiples studies are being undertaken for mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in various neurological diseases like autism, stroke, cerebral palsy, etc.

    All About Primary Cells

    Primary cells mimic the tissue of origin as they are directly isolated from the tissue and processed for culturing under optimized media conditions. Therefore, primary cell culture provides excellent model systems for studying normal cell physiology and biochemistry. There are a lot of articles on primary cells vs cell lines to understand which one of them […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis is a progressive degenerative disease that causes disability and chronic pain with reduced mobility, generally in knee joints. The pathophysiology includes lesions and loss of cartilage volume, leading to joint inflammation. Most current osteoarthritis treatments focus on pain management and surgical intervention but do not help in reducing the progression or reversing the condition. […]

    Human Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Regeneration

    Injuries in central and peripheral nervous system result in paralysis, anesthesia, disturbance of consciousness, and lack of motor control. Due to a limited ability of repair in case of neural damage, patients have to suffer from neurological diseases and their various after-effects. Human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have […]

    Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Progenitor cell Transplant

    Human umbilical cord blood is a rich source of progenitor stem cells for transplantation and certain patients might have advantages with cord blood stem cell transplants instead of the same with bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. Stem cell transplants can be in the form of autologous transplants or allogenic transplants. Human umbilical cord […]

    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have elicited great interest in the domains of tissue engineering, wound healing, regenerative medicine, and transplantation. Previous research studies have demonstrated that the transplantation of MSCs to an ectopic site in animal models has given rise to osteoblasts and bone tissue. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are […]

    Cell culture is a prominent tool in cellular and molecular biology research, often spreading to clinical applications. Cell culture using primary cells can be excellent model systems for studying physiology and biochemistry of cells, drug toxicity and metabolism, and other biomedical applications. Primary cell culture is being used by researchers worldwide for their role in […]

    Primary cells  represent the in vivo tissue environment fairly and these cells are directly taken from body tissues for processing and establish them under optimized culture conditions. As these cells are derived directly from native body tissue and not modified, they mimic the in vivo state and physiology. Therefore, they provide excellent model systems for studying […]

    Immortalize Primary Cells for Cell Line - Kosheeka

    Primary cells can undergo a pre-determined and finite number of cell divisions in culture. With more passage in cell culture, primary cells enter a replicative senescence state, where morphology, gene expression, and metabolism alter. Therefore, scientists immortalize primary cells in vitro to study cell growth, differentiation, and senescence using continuous cell lines. Immortal cell lines made from primary […]

    Amazing Facts About Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    Biomedical and clinical research would be inconceivable without progress in cell culture. This tool has become inevitably crucial in life sciences and has evolved much since the early 20th century, with its application in primary cell culture, 3D culture, tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, and regenerative therapies. As a cell culture researcher, you must have enough […]

    2D vs 3D Cell Cultures - Kosheeka

    In the field of biomedical research, 2D cell cultures have extensively been used since the early 1900s but in recent times, the technology of 3D cell culture has boomed. The tussle of 2D vs 3D cell culture has received much interest from biomedical researchers and other science geeks. In this article, let us explore more […]

    human primary cells vs immortal cell lines

    In biomedical research and development, scientists mostly use cultured cell lines as models because they offer easy, inexpensive, and stable platforms. However, cell lines fail to grasp the microenvironment physiology that occurs in vivo. Human primary cells come to the rescue in this situation! Primary cell culture portrays the complex physiological cell behavior and therefore […]

    Mammary Epithelial Cells - Kosheeka

    The growth of normal human mammary epithelial cells, including luminal, myoepithelial, and/or basal cells, is tightly controlled. Mammary epithelial cells grow for a finite span and eventually die or undergo senesce. Human, rat, and murine mammary epithelial cell have provided evidence that essential initial steps in mammary carcinoma cell line growth involve the loss of […]

    Human Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stem cells - Kosheeka

    The human umbilical cord tissue was regarded as medical waste until 1991 when fibroblast-like cells were isolated from the human umbilical cord tissue. Further characterization of these cells revealed that they express adhesion molecules (CD44, CD105), integrin markers (CD29, CD51), and mesenchymal stem cell markers like SH2 or SH3. Pluripotency markers like Oct-4, SSEA-1, and […]

    PARP Inhibitors For Prostate Cancer Treatment - Kosheeka

    This article reviews the status of PARP inhibitors for prostate cancer treatment and focuses on recent developments in drug approvals. How PARP Inhibitors help in Prostate Cancer Treatment? Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, often driven by specific genomic alterations. The defects in DNA repair/DNA-damage response pathways are critical to the risky malignant transformation of […]

    Discoveries in Animal Cell Culture Media - Kosheeka

    History of Animal Cell Culture Media In 1882, Sydney Ringer developed Ringer’s solution, a balanced salt solution with composition close to that of bodily fluids, to keep beating frog hearts after dissection. This is considered as the first witnessing of in vitro animal tissue cultivation. In the wake of Ringer’s report of the animal Cell […]

    Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells For Liver Diseases - Kosheeka

    The vascular endothelium, constituting the interface between organ tissues and blood, is a physical barrier and contributes to several physiological and pathological body functions, for example, thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, metabolite transportation, etc. Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells (HSECs) represent 15-20% of liver cells and form the wall of the liver sinusoids. HSECs are highly specialized endothelial […]

    Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Potential - Kosheeka

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) are a heterogeneous population of primary cells that are derived from the adult bone marrow. These mononuclear cells include lymphocytes, monocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, and hematopoietic progenitor cells. The bone marrow mononuclear cells also include a population of mesenchymal stromal cells and these cells are isolated from human adult bone […]

    Basal Media and Supplements in Primary Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    The task of choosing cell culture media for use with your primary cells is surely daunting. Therefore, if you are thinking of replicating a formulation of media from any previously published report or if you are optimizing your nutrient or classical media, it is important to understand the consequences of this media choice for your […]

    Recombinant Protein Production - Kosheeka

    As per the central dogma, protein production by translation is possible after RNA transcription and it all begins with DNA replication. In simpler terms, DNA sequence provides instructions for protein synthesis, and thus a gene expression results in protein expression. The recombinant DNA technology, also known as DNA cloning or gene cloning, involves the transfer […]

    Stem Cell Culture in the Laboratory_ - Kosheeka

    In the field of disease biology, cell therapy, and developmental biology, the experimental approaches do not result in reproducible efficiency upon using cell lines as limitations of genetic difference and characterization morphing occur in such cases. Therefore, scientists have shifted towards using primary cells and stem cells for in vitro cell culture studies in order […]

    Car-T Cell Therapy Targeting Tumors - Kosheeka

    CAR-T cell therapy is a type of treatment where the patient’s T cells are modified in the laboratory for attacking the cancer cells. This type of modification involves adding the gene for a special receptor that binds to a certain cancer cell protein. The special receptor is named CAR or chimeric antigen receptor. CAR-T cell […]

    Overcome The Challenges In Cryopreservation - Kosheeka

    Cryopreservation has become one of the major steps to focus on enhancing commercial and clinical cellular experiment-based cell culture process. Non-optimized substandard protocols and reagents used in cell culture can lead to damage of cells and lower cell viability. Besides that, the lack of optimized protocols in cell culture practice might also lead to decreased […]

    Lab Tips for Primary Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    Primary cell culture is an expanding technology for several biomedical applications like tissue culture, 3D Cell Culture, bioscaffolds, 3D bioprinting, organoid culture etc. Researchers have been utilizing this technology as an efficient ethical alternative to animal experiments and as a physiologically in vivo-mimicking alternative to culturing continuous cell lines. We, at Kosheeka, believe that cell […]

    Tech Tips for Primary Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    If you are a cell culture researcher working with primary cell culture, the most difficult thing to accept is watching your cell dishes and flasks getting contaminated or not proliferating even with appropriate incubation at the correct media pH and temperature conditions. Watching those adherent cells not attached to the flask surface and knowing that […]

    Mouse Models for Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Kosheeka

    Mouse models for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are of various types and subtypes as the different models have different responses of histology, disease location, therapeutic response, and potential applications.  Chemically Induced Mouse Models Chemically induced mouse models are the most widely used inflammatory bowel disease study moels. These mouse models are chemically induced by dextran sulfate […]

    PDX Models for Head & Neck Cancer Research - Kosheeka

    In recent times, PDX models or patient-derived xenograft models are getting heavily utilized in head and neck oncology research, specifically for studies on radiation response and organoids. What is a Patient-Derived Xenograft? Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) are xenograft models that have been derived from patient tumor tissues but never adapted to grow like cell line-derived xenografts. Patient-derived […]

    Authentication of Cancer Cell Line - Kosheeka

    Preclinical research models of cancer, such as human tumor xenografts, murine tumor homografts, cell line models and 3D organoid models, are extensively used in research and development for oncology studies. Since these tumor models are used for a wide spectrum of research applications, they are often utilized globally but the cell lines which are used […]

    Primary Cell Culture Cryopreservation - Kosheeka

    Cryopreservation is an essential cell culture maintenance activity in biomedical labs to preserve cells for future use. There are various aspects of cryopreservation which need to be learnt and properly performed so as to obtain a good viable population of cells after thawing, in case a culture follows. Keeping these things in mind, we had […]

    Tumor Organoid Applications

    Organoids are ex vivo model systems that revolutionized basic and translational cancer research in the domain of disease biology, since last decade. Organoid 3D cultures undergo mitogen-mediated proliferation as multicellular structures in semisolid matrices and while they possess some similarities like 3D spheroid cultures of cell lines, there are basic fundamental differences between them (Tsai […]

    Biomedical Research Paper Writing - Kosheeka

    A good biomedical research paper writing (review or research paper) requires an intensive literature search for information pertaining to the study, whether it involves primary cell culture or microbial studies. This literature survey takes into account rigorous searching and compiling of all previous studies and data on a particular topic. The literature survey helps further […]

    Antibiotics In Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    Antibiotics have been a routinely used component in cell cultures to prevent the growth of bacteria but several researchers doing primary cell culture have showed their interest in avoiding them for several reasons in order to save their cultures and help the cells grow happy! Researchers unanimously agree on the saying, “With good lab practice, […]

    Fresh or Frozen Primary Cells - Kosheeka

    At the time of procuring new primary cells to start cell culture for research purposes, the decision of procuring fresh cells or frozen primary cells (cryopreserved cells) may not be a simple task. There are many factors that goes on to influence the decision, based oncell maintenance, cell type, cell functionality, and logistics. To help […]


    At the time of cell culture experiments, imaging stem cells in real-time can essentially provide crucial information on cell physiology but previously, there was no such technology without the risks of phototoxicity or the use of labeling dye agents. With holotomography technology, it is possible to perform 3D live-cell imaging of the stem cells under […]

    research papers

    Experiments and assays of your research lead to the establishment of a research paper but the validation of your research work comes only after your research paper is published in an appropriate esteemed journal. Besides validation, publications can extend a wider recognition, promotion, and help in gaining research funds. Unfortunately, publishing is generally easier said […]

    3D Bioprinting in Biomedical - Kosheeka

    3D printing was first developed in 1984 and slowly started making its way into several domains of technology. In recent times, 3D printing advancements have paved the way for using this technology in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Since the last few years, biomedical science companies have also started figuring out how to utilize this […]

    Animal Cell Culture Trends - Kosheeka

    Cell culture started in the 1800s and with time, the trend of exploring new domains of cell culture technology to excel in biomedical and clinical research has been expanding into newer domains. Although 2020 has majorly focused the utilization of animal cell culture in COVID-19 diagnosis and drug development research besides playing an essential role […]

    3D Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    In vitro cell culture systems have been considered as essential research tools for biomedical and clinical research and development. Although it started with 2D cell culture consisting of cell monolayers, the recent practice of cell culture, specifically for primary cell culture, advanced 3D in vitro culture systems are widely being adopted for the advantages of […]

    Stem Cell Therapy For COVID-19 - Kosheeka

    While the world awaits a much-anticipated COVID-19 vaccine to be approved and distributed globally, several treatment options with repurposed drugs and alternative therapies are being sought after against the coronavirus disease. Among these resources, stem cell therapy has become a popular candidate with reports of successful treatment in small cohorts across the world. But do […]

    adipose derived stem cells

    Accounting for close to 8% of the body’s weight is the skin: that is capable of self-healing and renewal. Wounds are the outcome of damaged tissue structure or sin functions. There are several stages in wound healing:  hemostasis, inflammation, and proliferative and maturity phases that involve a dynamic interplay of growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. […]

    stem cells

    Stem Cells For Liver Disease: The number of lives lost due to liver disease across the world is around 2 million every year. Of these, 1 million is accounted for by viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma while the remaining 1 million is due to complications associated with cirrhosis. 3.5% of all deaths globally are accounted […]


    Mesenchymal stem cells for TB Not only is tuberculosis (TB) among the top 10 causes of death in the world but it also is the leading cause of death due to a single infectious agent! Though curable and preventable, close to 10 million people (5.7 million men, 3.2 million women and 1.1 million children) contracted […]

    stem cells for Crohn’s Disease

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the treatment of Crohn’s disease Crohn’s disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease involving chronic inflammation of any part of the gastrointestinal tract. The disease incidence is on the rise across the globe with the exact cause behind still being explored by research. There is a wide range of factors involved […]

    tumor primary cultures

    Primary cells culture refer to the removal of tissue from an organism and maintaining them in an appropriate medium to allow their division. One approach involves placing a piece of tissue in a glass or plastic vessel followed by bathing it in a medium. Division and growth of primary cell occur when cells separate from […]

    viral transport medium

    With an increasing need for extensive research on SARS-CoV2 biology, the diagnosis of COVID-19 infections by cell culture relies heavily on the careful and aseptic collection of specimens. This is where specialized Viral Transport Medium (VTM) is required to protect the virus from environmental damage and maintain its activity with adequate sustainable transport system. Over […]

    stem cell for AD

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dementia is mainly seen in older people though it is not normally part of the aging process. There is a decline in thinking, memory, behavior, and the ability to perform everyday activities. Across the globe, there are 10 million new cases every year of dementia with the most […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Healing The Kidney

    According to a study by the GBD Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration (2020), the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was 697·5 million or 9.1% in 2017: an increase of 29·3% from what was reported in 1990. The loss of lives due to CKD increased by 41·5% between 1990 and 2017! CKD is a risk factor […]

    MSCs for Sepsis in Kidney Injury

    One of the major causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) is sepsis: this becomes significant given that 1–35% of hospitalized patients develop AKI. In the case of general surgery, the incidence of AKI is close to 1% but this figure reaches a whopping 70% for critically ill patients accounting for in-hospital mortality of 50% in […]

    Clinical Drug Research

    Drug discovery and development extensively drives biomedical research and primary cell culture has been a very important turning point for the drug development domain. Along with primary cell culture, a critical factor in drug discovery is the study of biomarkers. The quality of biomarker detection encourages and enhances the efficiency of drug target identification, biological […]


      Sepsis refers to the loss of regulation of the host response to an infection. Not only is it considered the most frequent cause of death in hospitalized patients but it also accounts for an expenditure of US$24 billion per year. According to a study published in 2020 by scientists Rudd and team, close to […]

    Remove term: Mesenchymal stem cells for pain relief Mesenchymal stem cells for pain relief

    Researchers Friedenste in and his collaborators first described MSCs or mesenchymal stem cells as cells that could differentiate into other lineages and were adherent to plastic. They have generated much interest among researchers to explore the use of these cells for treating diseases or pain relief on account of their ease of isolation from a […]

    MSCs for Multiple Sclerosis

    According to a population-based estimate (2019), 300,000 to 400,000 individuals are affected by multiple sclerosis (MS): the most common progressive neurologic disease in the United States. The disease is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to demyelination and axonal loss. The disease is complex and multi-factorial with the […]

    Tumor Cell Lines In The Clinic

    The first cancer or tumor cell lines was HeLa that was derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951. In the early 1990s, a drug screening approach based on a “disease-oriented” program with a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines derived from nine different types of cancer (brain, colon, leukemia, lung, […]


    There is a common condition reported in aged people termed “Frailty”. Clinically, it is defined as “a state of increased vulnerability resulting from aging-associated decline in reserve and function across multiple organ systems such that the ability to cope with everyday or acute stressors is compromised”. In other words, there is a decline in the […]

    Breathing Easy With Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    H7N9 infection is caused by the family of influenza A viruses (IAVs); with 6 seasonal epidemics so far in mainland China since 2016 showing its developing virulence. The symptoms of H7N9 infection are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sputum that develop into severe pneumonia and moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS. Another disease […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Autoimmune Diseases - Kosheeka

    The immunomodulatory properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) coupled with their isolation from several sources ranging from bone marrow to adipose tissue to umbilical cord to placenta to dental pulp, and even menstrual fluid makes them attractive options for use in cell-based therapy. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, autoimmune diseases affect […]

    Swine Fibroblast Cells

    Apart from serving as a source of food, pigs are considered as the ideal models of modeling human diseases. This arises from the similarity in their anatomy and physiology with that of humans. The pig genome is three times closer to our genome that that of mice. Take the example of cystic fibrosis, the introduction […]

    Chronic Wounds treating with MSCs

    Close to 6.5 million patients in the US suffer from chronic wounds: with a whopping cost of US$25 billion spent per year on treating chronic wounds. These numbers are on the rise given the increase in the aging population and incidences in obesity and diabetes (Sen et al, 2009). In the case of basic wound […]

    The Brilliance Of Stem Cells From The Umbilical Cord

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells have attracted great attention in terms of their use for regenerative medicine. They have been isolated from many tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, fetal blood and liver, synovial membranes, skin, cord blood, amniotic fluid, peripheral blood and the umbilical cord. Research has shown that the marker phenotype, immune features and […]

    Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    The idea that adipose tissue is a reservoir of heat and an energy source has been changed with research highlighting the tissue involved in intricate interactions with other systems of our body: cardiovascular, nervous and endocrine systems. A secretome attributed to the adipose tissue or adipose mesenchymal stem cells that includes growth factors and adipocytokines […]

    Stem Cells Weave Their Magic - Kosheeka

    Close to 35 million men in the United States face some issue of hair losswith close to 21 million women are affected by hair loss, according to a 2014 survey by the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery ( One of the most common hair loss manifestations is androgenic alopecia that targets 30 to 50% […]

    Stem Cells For Healing Allergies

    The reaction to a foreign substance termed as allergen is termed as an allergy. According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, allergies rank 6th as the cause of chronic illness in the US with more than $18 billion spent a year for allergies. Allergies currently lack treatments with most patients reporting “management” of […]

    Stem Cells Are A Panacea For Renal Diseases

    According to the GBD Chronic Kidney Disease Collaboration (2020), chronic kidney disease (CKD) accounted for the deaths of 1.2 million people across the globe with a prevalence of 697.5 million or 9.1%! This makes the disease a cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. More than 2.5 million people receive renal diseases replacement therapy […]

    Human Umbilical Cord courve

    A chronic skin disease called atopic dermatitis (AD) involves the formation of skin lesions seen in eczema along with severe pruritus or itching. This condition affects 10% of adults and 20% of children. Abnormal responses of dominant type 2 helper T cells and B-cells leads to high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the serum […]

    Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    The field of dentistry has seen many changes in terms of advances in technologies. Among the various branches of dentistry is the field of prosthodontics: that deals with the repairing of missing teeth. According to the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry (2005), it is defined as the diagnosis and treatment of damaged or missing teeth and/or maxillofacial tissues […]

    Use Stem Cells To Heal Scars

    The skin forms the outer barrier of the body and also functions as a regulator of body temperature. The process of wound healing involves 3 stages: inflammation, proliferation and remodelling that are controlled by many growth factors and cytokines. A loss of regulation can cause over-healing and the formation of scars that not only cause […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Diabetes

    According to a 2019-published study in Diabetes Research And Clinical Practice, apart from the impact diabetes has on health, it is the top 10 causes of death in adults! There are three main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The scientists reported that across […]

    Human Dental Mesenchymal Stem Cells Culture

    Among the various types of stem cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) emerge promising in treating many diseases given their widespread occurrence and ability to differentiate into cells of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Among the various sites from which they have been isolated, the teeth show the presence of stem cell populations whose properties are […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells Treatment of COVID-19- Kosheeka

    Cell-based therapy and especially stem cell therapy have gained a status as promising therapeutic field, to cure incurable diseases. Recently, China, USA, and Israel have conducted few stem cell-based human studies for COVID19 patients. Among all stem cells, Placental MSCs were used as a potential source of stem cells due to their high proliferation rate, […]

    Erythroblast Cells For Treating Haematological Diseases

    Scheme of red blood cell formation: Nichols, Brendan & Shrestha, Rajiv & Horowitz, Joseph & Hollot, C.V. & Germain, Michael & Gaweda, Adam & Chait, Y. (2011). Simplification of an Erythropoiesis Model for Design of Anemia Management Protocols in End Stage Renal Disease. Conference proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and […]

    Studying B Lymphocytes

    Early research reported the discovery of lymphocytes as the instruments of adaptive or specific immunity. This branch of our immune system has the properties of recognizing a broad range of antigens and can undergo what is termed as clonal differentiation. While most B cells secrete antibodies specific to antigens, there are also memory B-cells. While […]

    Repairing Organs With MSCs

    The field of organ donation sees challenges with not only a shortage of donors but also lifelong immunosuppression in the recipients. An alternative is the repair of damaged organs to regenerate the functions lost in an organ. Among the various types of stem cells are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) that were first isolated from the […]

    Stem Cells Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of conditions in children that involve affected behaviour, language and communication. The intellect may be extremely poor or the other extreme-highly intelligent. According to the World Health Organization, Autism Spectrum Disorder is seen in one in 160 children. The main aspects of this disease include a “repetitive” behaviour […]

    Adipose Stem Cells For Osteoarthritis

    The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis (OA) which is mainly due to the loss of cartilage or changed the shape of the head of the femur. OA in the hip can cause pain and affected movements in patients. The incidence of hip OA is 9.2% for men and women above 45 years in […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells Hope For Depression

    Depression is considered a serious health disorder especially when it is long-lasting. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that across the world, 264 million people suffer from this condition! A person who is affected by depression shows poor performance at their studies or work with relationships also getting impacted. If depression reaches its worst limit-an […]

    using MSC

    Depression is considered a serious health disorder when it is long-lasting. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that across the world, 264 million people suffer from this condition! A person who is affected by depression shows poor performance at their studies or work with relationships also getting impacted. If depression reaches its worst limit-an outcome […]

    CD 34 Positive Cells

    The discovery of the CD 34 cell-surface antigen involved the use of monoclonal antibodies specific for progenitors of hematopoietic cells. This led to the use of purifying hematopoietic cells in the blood and bone marrow easily to treat a host of diseases. CD 34 is described as spanning the plasma membrane making it a transmembrane […]

    Stem Cells For Treating Eye Cell Degeneration

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), close to 2.2 billion people across the world face vision impairment of which close to half (1 billion) still lacks treatment or could have been prevented. These conditions include blindness, distance vision impairment or near vision impairment. An example of eye cell degeneration disease is retinal degeneration with a […]

    Swine Hearts for Cardiovascular Disease

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 17.9 million people die each year due to heart disease making it the top cause for death. This makes investigating the factors and causes of heart disease a prime focus of research given that many non-injury deaths in adults in industrialized countries are due to cardiac issues. […]

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells To Treat Female Infertility

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), data from Demographic and Health Surveys and WHO revealed that one of 4 couples reported an issue of infertility. Female infertility pattern was seen from 1990 to 2020 from 190 countries. So how exactly is the term infertility defined, “Infertility is the failure to achieve any pregnancy (including […]

    Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell For Healing

    One of the major concerns of most people is to look young and have healthy skin. The breakout of acne is associated with social and psychological problems that have led to so many products available in the market to treat this skin condition. These Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells treatment range from home remedies to diet […]

    The Promise Of Mouse Skeletal Muscles Fibroblasts

    There are differentiated myofibers with many nuclei making up the skeletal muscle that undergo contraction to cause movement. There are also satellite cells: between the basal lamina and sarcolemma that are considered the stem cells of the muscle. They are quiescent under normal/healthy states; upon damage, they form progenitors that not only repair the damaged […]

    Skin-Derived Precursor (SKP) Cells For Regenerative Medicine

    The multipotency of Skin-derived Precursor (SKP) stem cells has generated much interest in the research field. These cells show the expression of stem cell markers and undergo self- renewal. Additionally, they are present in the dermis and can be isolated from skin biopsies without much influence of the age or health status of the individual […]

    Pancreatic Islet Cells Culture For Diabetes - Kosheeka

    According to the International Diabetes Federation (, more than 380 million people across the globe are affected by diabetes mellitus. The global expenditure due to the diseases was USD 612 billion in 2014. Around 1.6 million deaths were due to this condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The condition causes several complications according […]

    Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue

    Bottom: the potential of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (Robert W. Alexander. Understanding Adipose-derived Stromal Vascular Fraction (AD-SVF) Cell Biology and Use on the Basis of Cellular, Chemical, Structural and Paracrine Components: A Concise Review. Journal of Prolotherapy. 2012;4:e855-e869) Accounting for 20% to 25% of the bodyweight of women and 15% to 20% of the […]

    Expanding Research By Supplying Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    The years 1960s and 1970s ushered in a new era in research when the transplantation of bone marrow into the kidney capsule by Dr. Friedenstein resulted in the division of the bone marrow cells and the formation of bone cells called osteoblasts. This suggested the presence of “stem cells” that form the bone along with […]

    Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cells (BM-MNCs)

    The field of treating patients with immune disorders and hematopoietic diseases underwent a revolution with scientist E. Donnall Thomas showing the use of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in leukaemia. This later was modified with specific cells or fractions of the bone marrow being used such as bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs). BM-MNCs are cells of […]

    Human Umbilical Cord Derived MSCs

    According to The European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences (2016), cells derived from the mesoderm with the ability to undergo self-renewal are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). These cells were first described by a team led by Friedenstein as spindle-shaped cells that adhered to the culture vessel from the bone marrow. MSCs can differentiate into […]

    Primary Cultures - Vital Tips

    Establishing primary cultures is an important tool in research. Primary cultures closely represent the tissue or organ from which they were isolated making them suitable in vitro systems to study the mechanisms or the effects of chemicals/drugs on the cells. They also lack the challenge with immortalized cultures that are “transformed”-making the observations in them […]

    Liver Mast Cell Cultures

    The major cell of the liver is the hepatocyte makes up 70–85% of the cytoplasm of the liver cells. These cells produce bile which in turn is modified by other cells called cholangiocytes. According to researchers Hargrove and team in Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, these, mast cell contribute 3–5% of […]


    According to research published in 2015 in BioMed Research International by Florencio-Silva and team, apart from protecting the body, the bones are involved in locomotion, containing the vital bone marrow as well as storing calcium and phosphate. While it looks inanimate, the bone shows dynamic remodelling with bone resorption and formation performed by cells called osteoclasts […]

    Cultures As Alternatives To Animal Usage In Labs

    Humans have “used” animals not only as a source of food but also for companionship, recreation and transport for ages. According to (CULABBR, 1988), scientific research has used a wide range of animal usage in labs, such as guinea pigs, hamsters, rats, mice, fish, birds, cats, dogs and primates. The research conducted on animals covers […]

    Kidney Epithelial Cell Primary Cultures

    The role of the kidney as an important organ in the urinary system is well known right from high school textbooks to research papers. Apart from excretion, the organ also allows the elimination of waste from the catabolism of nitrogen, maintaining homeostasis and secreting factors of the endocrine system. All these functions are affected when […]

    COVID-19 Vaccine Development

    Amidst rumors of genetic conspiracy theories, COVID-19 has become a domain for pharmaceutical companies to rush with drug developments and repurposing. Besides the COVID-19 vaccine development ruckus, various companies have started preclinical testing to develop therapeutic COVID-19 vaccines. The advancements predominantly include mRNA vaccines followed by combination vaccines, genetic vaccines, and re-engineered vaccines. Here are […]

    Larynx to Heal Throat - Kosheeka

    There is a medical condition involving the backflow or retrograde flow of the contents of the stomach to the larynx and pharynx to contact the upper aero-digestive tract. This condition is called Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Research by El-Serag in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology showed that the occurrence of such acid reflux conditions has shot up […]

    Eye Primary Cultures - Kosheeka

    The complex and sensitive anatomy of the human eye not only attracts the attention of ophthalmologists but also scientists who are on the quest for models to study eye diseases or eye primary cultures. The World Health Organization places an estimate of 2.2 billion people in the world suffering from blindness or a visual impairment, […]

    Challenges in Lung Cancer

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer was accountable for the deaths of 9.6 million deaths across the world in 2018! It goes on to say that 2.09 million cases of cancer are that of the lung which accounts for 1.76 million deaths. Apart from the loss of valuable human lives, the disease caused an […]

    Primary Cultures In Biomedical Research

    In order to minimize problems of misidentification that can lead to research being retracted and the loss associated due to contamination. The following pointers can be used as a reminder to facilitate good practices for primary cultures in biomedical research: The derivation of culture from fresh human tissue involves the first step of obtaining ethical […]

    Lung Endothelial Cells

    The endothelium that lines the normal lung is different from that seen in blood vessels and forms a semi-permeable barrier between the blood and interstitium. Other functions of this lung endothelial cells monolayer include growth factor production, trafficking of leukocytes, maintaining the vascular tone and signal transduction. As these cells are an important constituent of […]

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    The production of blood as long as an organism’s life is orchestrated by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Accordingly, HSCs form each type of blood cell that has varying functions such as red blood cells that carry oxygen to the immune cells that protect our body from pathogen attack to platelets that mediate clotting. There are […]

    Culturing The Endometrial Cells To Assess Cancers

    There are 3 layers in the human uterus called the perimetrium, the myometrium, and the endometrium. The outer layer is known as the perimetrium that is made of serous cells while the middle layer is the thick myometrium made of smooth muscle cells. The inner layer is the endometrium that is made of epithelial cells […]

    Development of Embryos

    Apart from what is known about the role of Vitamin A and its active form called retinoic acid in vision, the role of this vitamin is also seen in several aspects of development invertebrates. These functions range from division to differentiation. According to research published in Dev Cell in 2010 by Li and team; retinoic […]

    Culturing The Multi-Faceted Enterocytes

    Enterocytes have been shown to function in digestion by taking up water, nutrients, ions, vitamins as well as absorbing unconjugated bile salts. Apart from this role in the digestive system, research by Miron and Cristea in Clinical and experimental immunology in 2012 showed that these cells also function in immunity. They function as a barrier […]

    pediatric ear disease

    According to 2019 research published in the NCBI, the pediatric ear disease otitis media is an infection of the ear where fluid accumulation is seen in the middle ear. It ranks second in visits to the emergency department, the first being upper respiratory infections in pediatric patients. A 2013 published Laryngoscope article reported that this […]

    Primary Cultures Of Cornea

    Several tissues make up the cornea that ranges from the epithelium to the basement membrane that in turn maintains the epithelium. This is followed by the keratocytes in the stroma that produce the collagen for repair and extracellular matrix proteins. An inner layer called Descemet’s membrane that allows the passage of drugs applied on the […]

    Regulators of Metabolism

    The butterfly-shaped thyroid gland secretes the Thyroid hormone (TH) that is involved in the regulation of metabolism in children to allow growth and development as well as adults. According to a review in Physiological reviews by Mullur and team, our energy and body weight is regulated by the level of thyroid hormone by directly targeting […]

    Exploring Gastric Cancer Using Primary Culture

    The role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in cancer (Source: Roy, Aniruddha & Li, Shyh-Dar. (2016). Modifying the tumour microenvironment using nanoparticle therapeutics. Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. 8. 10)  According to GLOBOCAN 2018 data published in CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, stomach or gastric cancer leads not only in being the most common but […]

    Maintaining Clean Primary Cultures - Kosheeka

    The term “contamination” can send shivers down the spine of any tissue culture lab personnel! When the extent of contamination is searched across literature, the following observations emerge: 2012 published research in the Cell journal by Nikfarjam and Farzaneh showed that on an average, Mycoplasma is present in 5 to 30% of the world’s cell […]

    Circulating Tumour Cells

    Top: The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in metastasis (Source: Rostami, Peyman & Kashaninejad, Navid & Moshksayan, Khashayar & Saidi, Mohammad & Firoozabadi, B. & Nguyen, Nam-Trung. (2019). Novel approaches in cancer management with circulating tumor cell clusters. 10.1016/j.jsamd.2019.01.006.) Bottom: 10-day cultured CTC stained using NucBlueTM (Kolostova et al, 2015) One of the main reasons […]

    Keratinocytes - Kosheeka

    Keywords: Primary Culture, Skin Culture, Keratinocytes The skin protects us from the external environment and is composed of 2 layers: the inner dermis and the outer epidermis. The epidermis forms what is called an “an intact epidermal barrier”; this separates our body from the various unwanted molecules outside such as UV rays, pathogens or allergens. […]

    oral cancer

    Statistics published, close to 60% of individuals who receive the diagnosis of oral cancer would die in 5 years of diagnosis. Close to 54,000 people receive the diagnosis in the US that accounts for 13,500 deaths annually! The deaths due to oral cancer are more than that of testicular cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and cervical […]

    Nervous System

    There is an elaborate system of a slew of cells associated with each other directly and indirectly in the human brain. Each of these cells is targeted differently by both diseases and drugs. According to the World Health Organization, many diseases target the central nervous system such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, brain tumours, […]

    Cell-Based Vaccines For COVD-19

    With the disastrous epidemic status of coronavirus (COVID-19) in several parts of the world, the need of the hour is an urgent coronavirus vaccine development to prevent the spread of this virus and reduce the global mortality numbers which have gone up to 3283, according to WHO situation report 45. The elderly and sick people […]

    6 Steps To A Research Paper

    If you are looking at your laptop screen and thinking about your Ph.D. supervisor telling you: “Why don’t you start putting your data together in a publication format so we can get it through to an international journal?”. It is high time to focus on the process of compiling your scientific data and get going […]

    Tendon Damage

    Movement of joints is facilitated by structures in the body called tendons that connect muscle and bone. They are grouped under the category of “dense connective tissues” and are made of mainly collagen type I. the junction of the attachment of the bone and a tendon is called “enthesis” that has such an arrangement to […]

    Nasal Epithelial Cell Culture

    According to the World Allergy Organization Journal (2014), inflammation in the nose and associated sinuses involving congestion or blockage, discharge from the nose and affected ability to smell constitutes what is termed as chronic rhinosinusitis. While there is treatment available via nasal epithelial cell culture, irritating symptoms still persist in many patients. 4.8 days were lost […]

    Primary Cultures To Assess Toxicity In Kidneys

    Apart from the usual functions of the kidney listed in high school textbooks, it is targeted by many xenobiotics and also develops tumors. According to research published in Clinical genitourinary cancer in 2019 by Saad and team, 65,340 cases of the most common renal cancer called renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was diagnosed in the US […]

    Primary Cell Culture For Cytomegalovirus

    The use of mammalian culture systems is important for biomedical research today. This becomes important for simulating in vivo experiments such as producing biomolecules like growth factors or culturing pathogens for culturing pathogens and also mechanistic studies. Cell lines offer an advantage over animal models. The use of established cell lines, however, faces challenges as […]

    Studying Sperm Biology Using Testicular Cell Cultures

    Experimental models have allowed the identification of the diversity and the similarity in morphology and development across species. One example is the comparative analysis done to understand the diversity of testicular cell. The physiology and development of vertebrates have been studied using fish such as zebrafish and medaka on account of the ease of usage […]

    homan cells - Primary Cultures

    While most lab reports are filled with “breaking” results there are few articles that bring out the importance of correct identification of cells and primary culture of cells. This becomes important given that the issue of “mistaken identity” is a huge barrier to correct research. To cite an example from literature, we can see the […]

    Gastrointestinal Nerves - Kosheeka

    The gut performs a wide array of functions ranging from digestion and absorption across different compartments along the gut. Additionally, there is a precise activity of skeletal muscles and smooth muscles that allow the contractions of the gut. The secretion of mucus, enzymes and salts occurs at correct timing and intervals. The epithelial barrier between […]

    The stomach tissue microenvironment is composed of many types of cells. This diversity along with their interactions is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis and the development of tumors. The major players involved are immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and the extracellular matrix. All these elements work in unison to maintain the structure, integrity, and […]

    Primary Satellite Glial Cells cultures

    There is a continuous layer of cells around primary sensory neurons that are located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia. These cells are specialized cells called satellite glial cells (SGCs). According to Wang and team (2019), these cells are vital to control or regulate the transmission of signals within sensory ganglia as […]

    Ovarian cancer caused 184,799 deaths (4.4%) among women in 2018 according to the International Journal of women’s health. It ranks third among gynecologic cancers with cervical and uterine cancers at the lead. The disease has a very poor prognosis and causes many deaths. This is due to a lack of early visible symptoms or screening […]

    Cardiac Telocytes

    Telocytes (TCs) are a special group of interstitial cells that have a small cell body with alternate segments such as dilations called podoms and thin segments called podomeres. Many tissues and organs in mammals contain these cells such as several structures of the heart- endocardium, myocardium, epicardium and even heart valves. There is research showing […]

    Pericytes are vascular cells located on capillaries and other small diameter vessels. They have also been reported to be present in the layers of the arteries called intima, media, and adventitia. Their exact functions are yet to be classified. These vascular cells are involved in the development, stabilization, remodeling, and maturation of capillaries and other […]


    Endothelial cells (ECs) are natural barriers and platforms for exchanging materials in the body and are considered as gatekeepers. As genetic engineering can be easily done in mice, the study of cardiovascular diseases is often done in this animal. The primary culture of mouse lung ECs (MLECs) serves as common systems to study diseases associated […]

    Cardiomyocytes Biology

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) refer to a group of diseases that target the heart and blood vessels such as coronary heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. These diseases rank number one in deaths across the world- around 17.9 million lives each year! The WHO also lists that out of […]

    Apart from the functioning of the ovary cells in the female reproductive cycle, many sex steroids are secreted that are vital in the menstrual cycle. Humans are exposed to a large variety of chemicals in their lifetime. A major health challenge today is molecules present in the environment and from natural sources that mimic or […]

    Human Lung Cancer Cells

    According to 2018 research published in Translational lung cancer research, 1.6 million new diagnoses and 1.4 million deaths were due to lung cancer in 2008 that jumped up to 1.8 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths in 2012! According to gender, human lung cancer ranks second with breast cancer for women and prostate cancer for […]

    Fish Primary Cultures

    The use of animals in scientific experiments involves ethical issues as well as regulations specific to each country. An example is the Animal (Scientific) Procedures Act, 1986 that needs to be followed in the UK when lab work is conducted on vertebrates ( There is increased awareness in using the 3Rs (Reduce, Refine and Replace) […]

    Ordering your Cells

    Medical treatments have been using biological extracts and microbial treatments for many centuries. Gradually chemical pharmacological compositions using proteins came into the picture and then the clinical researchers started exploiting molecular genes by devising genetic engineering approach in the body cells. Since the last two decades, cells have been used as a promising therapeutic agent […]

    Animal Cell Culture

    Bypassing animal experiments for ethical reasons, the biomedical community is plunging into this Grand Canyon of animal cell culture for adding more relevance to their clinical research, and what’s better than knowing how you can use this technology in various fields of biomedical research! Here are some areas where a researcher can use animal cell […]

    Research paper for Publications

    If you are looking at your laptop screen and thinking about your Ph.D. supervisor telling you: “Why don’t you start putting your data together in a publication format so we can get it through to an international journal?”, it is high time to focus on the process of compiling your scientific data and get going […]

    Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    The study of phenotypes specific to diseases can be done using cell lines. For example, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated to express mutations in the gene most commonly affected in Parkinson’s disease called Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2). The research team led by Nguyen generated neurons from patient fibroblasts that resembled the early stages of the disease […]

    Magic Of Primary Cells

    Cell culture refers to culturing the cells of organisms in an environment that supports their growth. The basic aspect of life is explained by the concept of primary cells. The study of cells allows the study of the various processes occurring in our bodies. With our bodies exposed to so many chemicals every day, it […]

    Personalized Cancer Therapy Using Primary Culture

    The word cancer has become scarily commonplace today; According to the World Health Organization, 9.6 million people died in 2018 due to cancer. 70% of these deaths are in low-income or middle-income countries. 1 of 6 deaths is due to cancer across the world. Given these dismal numbers, cutting-edge research is the need of the […]

    Primary Cell Culture Media with Artificial Intelligence

    Are you a scientist and want to take up cell culture research? You must have looked into the cells you want to study and the culture media appropriate for them. But one of the vital questions that you need to ask is whether or not to use serum in your media. Serum is one of […]

    Rat Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    There are multiple aspects of the liver in metabolism ranging from glucose formation, bile secretion, protein synthesis, detoxification and formation of urea in our body.  The majority of these functions are performed by parenchymal cells of the liver called hepatocytes, these cells have been much used in research mainly to study liver functions and the […]

    Transforming In Vitro Models in Biomedical Research

    3D cell culture has been a boon to the scientific community for cell culture experiments and is extensively used as an alternative to in vivo animal experiments. 3D cell culture presents itself as an assembly of cells that mimics tissue-specific / organ-specific architecture. 2D cell culture is the most common cell culture practice in vitro […]

    swine heart fibroblasts

    Where surgeries and medicines fail, stem cell therapies give a ray of hope! What seemed like a brilliant idea for biogenic Sci-Fi movies earlier is now a stark reality that gifts renewed hope to millions of patients worldwide. Currently, global stem cell research has a plethora of promises for several complex conditions ranging from autoimmune […]


    In Biomedical Research, if one is ever asked about the primary component of a clinically relevant scientific study, the go-to term is cell culture. Cell culture is an indispensable fraction of biomedical research which forms the first step towards quality in vivo experiments. These provide a platform for controlled and biologically-significant experiments on various cellular pathways […]

    Cell Culture Lab Tips

    In a cell culture lab, few extra minutes of organization can go a long way in keeping creating a sterile environment for your cells and enhance your productivity. Labeling Flasks It is a good practice to label all your cell culture flasks with your name, type of cells, passage number and experimental details. This is […]

    Primary Cell Culture Media with Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial intelligence has a huge potential for being a game-changer in the Biomedical Research field. The technology has helped solve biological enigmas extending to both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Pharmaceutical giants like Novartis, AstraZeneca have all realized this potential is setting up their collaborations and centers in hope of groundbreaking discoveries. Drug Discovery Today several […]

    With popularity of Gene editing techniques, one area that has gathered attention is the use of this technology for modifying genes of unborn or designer babies. Recently, a Chinese researcher asserted that he created the world’s first gene-edited “twin” babies. While he claims that the genetically modified babies were resistant to HIV infection, his case […]

    Pancreatic Islets – An Important Tool For Diabetes Research

    Skin is the largest organ in our body. One of the most commonly populated cells in skin fibroblasts that have been demonstrated to have multi-functionality. If you are venturing into any of the below applications, Kosheeka’s dermal fibroblasts could be your go-to cells. Skin Tissue engineering Dermal fibroblasts play a very substantial role in skin […]

    Passaging Primary Cells

    Primary cell cultures represent the physiological state of the tissue of origin. However, they have a finite lifespan undergo senescence after a certain number of passages or subcultures. While lower passages of the cells usually contain a mixed cell population, high passages can lead to loss of the differentiated properties of the cell type. Continuous […]

    Pipetting: The Game Changer

    One of the major concerns in any laboratory is data reproducibility and consistency. While user handling and sample variation do play critical roles, pipetting is often neglected space. Quality of the tip, as well as the user practices, can affect the overall results of an experiment. Kosheeka recommends the following tips to improve pipetting accuracy […]

    Factors Affecting Data Reproducibility

    Consistency in research experiments is hard to achieve. There are several factors that can affect data reproducibility. Publishing data in high impact journals requires repeating experiments and standardization of techniques and procedures. 4 Major Factors For Generating Robust And Data Reproducibility Reagents As a rule, the brand and catalog numbers of products for a specific […]


    Mycoplasma is a serious threat to cell biologists as it can interfere with cell metabolism and affect cell viability. Once contaminated, mycoplasma spreads extremely rapidly and can ultimately ruin the entire culture in the lab. Lack of visual detection makes it extremely difficult to detect mycoplasmas in culture and it may be too late before […]

    Human umbilical cord-derived endothelial cells

    Human Umbilical cord-derived endothelial cells have been a major source of primary endothelial cells isolated from the veins of umbilical cord. Due to ease of availability and isolation, they have quickly become the preferred choice for cell culture. They are highly proliferative and can have migrative properties. They form the endothelium, which refers to a […]

    Home for Cells

    While cell culture lab cleaning and biosafety hood sterilization is prioritized, CO2 incubators are often neglected as part of the cleaning regime. Cells are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature, humidity and pressure. Moreover, multiple users working in an incubator could risk chances of contamination. Therefore, regular maintenance of CO2 could go a long way […]

    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been used for several therapeutic applications. Apart from inheriting several functional properties like immunomodulation, angiogenesis, etc.; they as well display a strong nature of multipotency, and hence are being referred to be as the ideal candidates for tissue repair and regeneration. These mighty cells are being admired more for […]

    Quality Control: Neglected Side Of Cell Culture - Kosheeka

    Did you ever have to repeat an entire cell culture experiment because of microbial contamination? This is a fairly common issue faced by most cell biologists at least once in their lifetime.While much effort has been made to improvise cell culture models and techniques, there is a lot of ignorance towards quality control (QC) measures. […]

    Guide To Cryopreservation

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing biological entity at ultra-low temperatures (-196oc) while preserving the structural and functional integrity of cells. Cryopreservation helps to prevent maintenance of cell cultures for extended durations beyond requirement by quarantining of the donor cells.  It thereby helps in cost-cutting by conserving the culture media and plasticware used. It further […]

    Blood Stem Cell

    In a paper published in the July 31 issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center used CRISPR-Cas9 to edit long-lived blood stem cell to reverse the clinical symptoms observed with several blood disorders, including sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia. It’s the first time that scientists have specifically edited the genetic […]

    Transforming In Vitro Models in Biomedical Research

    In this ever-evolving world, where bugs and superbugs, show resistance to the ongoing medicines, and incidences of new diseases, there is an immense need for sustainable research and that too at a faster rate. Your research matters and so does the time involves? We at Kosheeka provide you, user-specific primary cells. We are specialized in […]

    Primary Cancer Cell Lines

    “There is no good science with the bad models of toxicological analysis” the statement may sound quite apodictic, but it is apt to the today’s situation, wherein animal models are completely banned. In this regard, a good model should conveniently offer the best results in the context of accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability. Depending upon the […]

    Bioengineered Organs

    The science of tissue engineering has been constructed on a foundation of a very simple concept; take out the patient’s own cells, grow them in a sterile environment similar to that of a human body and infuse them on a scaffolding material to provide 3-dimensional support. With this recipe, you may have your own laboratory-grown […]

    Factors Affecting Data Reproducibility

    The strong foundation of credibility leads to incredible scientific advancements. However, today’s scientific community is still struggling with data reproducibility, contamination, and availability of good resources required for their Biomedical Research. As a matter of fact, different self-correcting mechanisms can be implemented for good data reproducibility, which is entirely dependent upon the ability of a […]

    primary cells

    Scientists are exploring the miniature world of tiny organoids formed in the culture plate, in order to see how these small models are creating wonders in the world of biological research. During the initial period of the investigations, scientists could learn more about different diseases, when the disaster already happened. However, in the later stages […]


    Once upon a time, the scientific world was struggling to culture the notoriously difficult primary cells; and had to spend a lot of resources, in terms of money as well as time. Apart from being difficult to extract, these fragile cultures also had to pass through extremely harsh dissociation steps, and a risk of being […]

    Primary Cells From Kosheeka

    In the early years of the current century, the applications associated with acute toxicity were largely being foreshadowed. However, very recently researchers have directed their attention to exploring many crucial biological pathways to evaluate underlying molecular the mechanism responsible for the diseased condition. In this regard, the primary cells have been emphasized to be playing a […]

    Primary Cancer Cell Lines

    Despite the significant efforts made in understanding of various aspects of cancer such as progression, metastasis, tumor microenvironment, we have achieved very limited clinical success. It is majorly because cancer is a heterogeneous disease having varied histopathology, genetic differences making difficult to understand disease mechanism as well as discover therapeutic agents for it. The heterogeneity […]

    Pancreatic Islets – An Important Tool For Diabetes Research

    Pancreatic Islets Pancreatic islets, also called islets of Langerhans, are groups of cells present in pancreas named after the the German physician Paul Langerhans, who first described them in 1869. The normal human pancreas contains about one million islets. Pancreas plays an essential role in converting the food into fuel for the body’s cells. The […]

    Cell Research

    Experiments with primary cells are playing a major role in advancement of life science and pharmaceutical research. Primary cells are little difficult to work with, but these cells provide more meaningful data in experiments. Here are ten common mistakes that are made with primary cells and also how these mistakes can be minimized. These tips will enhance […]

    Primary Cell Cultures

    With the advancements made in primary cell cultures technique, cell culture studies provide a valuable complement to in vivo experiments and offer several advantages, such as cost effective, provide an unlimited material supply and bypass ethical concerns associated with the use of animal. In vitro studies allow more controlled experiments to study cellular functions and […]

    Primary Hepatocytes

    Many new developed pharmaceuticals turn out to be toxic, even after getting release into the market due to their unexpected side effects. These adverse drug reactions cause significant health issues to patient’s health and as well as cause financial loss to pharmaceutical industry due to post-licensing drug withdrawal from market. Adverse drug reactions are of […]

    Emerging Cell Culture Technology

    Cell culture technology is playing a major role in the advancement of modern biotechnology especially in the area of human health, medicine and pharmaceutical technology. Ideally, the cells used in cell culture technology systems should mimic those present in vivo, thus primary cells (non-immortalized cells that have recently been removed from an in vivo environment) […]

    Primary Cell Culture Media with Artificial Intelligence

    In vitro cell culture experiments play an important role in the advancement of life science and Biomedical research. These cell culture studies have become an integral part of research related to diagnosis, drug development, and drug toxicity and add significant value to the understanding of cellular and functional aspects of physiology and metabolism. However, the in vitro […]


    [cmsmasters_row data_shortcode_id=”43y498pfni” data_padding_bottom_mobile_v=”0″ data_padding_top_mobile_v=”0″ data_padding_bottom_mobile_h=”0″ data_padding_top_mobile_h=”0″ data_padding_bottom_tablet=”0″ data_padding_top_tablet=”0″ data_padding_bottom_laptop=”0″ data_padding_top_laptop=”0″ data_padding_bottom=”50″ data_padding_top=”0″ data_bg_parallax_ratio=”0.5″ data_bg_size=”cover” data_bg_attachment=”scroll” data_bg_repeat=”no-repeat” data_bg_position=”top center” data_color=”default” data_bot_style=”default” data_top_style=”default” data_padding_right=”3″ data_padding_left=”3″ data_width=”boxed”][cmsmasters_column data_width=”1/1″ data_shortcode_id=”r4vtulkcoo” data_animation_delay=”0″ data_border_style=”default” data_bg_size=”cover” data_bg_attachment=”scroll” data_bg_repeat=”no-repeat” data_bg_position=”top center”][cmsmasters_text shortcode_id=”4c6l72nv3″ animation_delay=”0″] In pharmaceutical industry, toxicological studies are a prime requirement either for the development of new drugs or for extending the […]

    Animal Cell Culture

    [cmsmasters_row data_width=”boxed” data_padding_left=”3″ data_padding_right=”3″ data_top_style=”default” data_bot_style=”default” data_color=”default” data_bg_position=”top center” data_bg_repeat=”no-repeat” data_bg_attachment=”scroll” data_bg_size=”cover” data_bg_parallax_ratio=”0.5″ data_padding_top=”0″ data_padding_bottom=”50″ data_padding_top_laptop=”0″ data_padding_bottom_laptop=”0″ data_padding_top_tablet=”0″ data_padding_bottom_tablet=”0″ data_padding_top_mobile_h=”0″ data_padding_bottom_mobile_h=”0″ data_padding_top_mobile_v=”0″ data_padding_bottom_mobile_v=”0″ data_shortcode_id=”qvwkjre4iq”][cmsmasters_column data_width=”1/1″ data_bg_position=”top center” data_bg_repeat=”no-repeat” data_bg_attachment=”scroll” data_bg_size=”cover” data_border_style=”default” data_animation_delay=”0″ data_shortcode_id=”0hdglzs6wq”][cmsmasters_text shortcode_id=”frqy9c4n2o” animation_delay=”0″] The life science research has taken a major turn with the introduction of cell lines and culturing techniques. A number […]

    Animal Experiments in Research - Kosheeka

    The preclinical studies in life science research involve the use of animals which is time consuming, expensive and also leads to suffering of that animal. The environmentalists and animal lovers

    Primary Cell: Life Science Research

    For decades, cell lines are playing a major role in advancement of scientific research and cell-based technologies. Cell culture experiments are of much importance in research especially for human based projects, yet researchers have to be very cautious during interpretation of data generated from cell lines only.